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Mesothelioma cancer glossary - E
EBV - Epstein-Barr virus. A common virus that remains dormant in most people. It has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
edema - Swelling caused by excess fluid in body tissues.
efficacy - Effectiveness. In medicine, the ability of an intervention (for example, a drug or surgery) to produce the desired beneficial effect.
eligibility criteria - In clinical trials, requirements that must be met for an individual to be included in a study. These requirements help make sure that patients in a trial are similar to each other in terms of specific factors such as age, type and stage of cancer, general health, and previous treatment. When all participants meet the same eligibility criteria, it gives researchers greater confidence that results of the study are caused by the intervention being tested and not by other factors.
embolization - The blocking of an artery by a clot or foreign material. Embolization can be done as treatment to block the flow of blood to a tumor.
embryonal tumor - A mass of rapidly growing cells that begins in embryonic (fetal) tissue. Embryonal tumors may be benign or malignant, and include neuroblastomas and Wilms’ tumors. Also called embryoma.
emesis - Vomiting.
endocrine therapy - Treatment that adds, blocks or removes hormones. For certain conditions (such as diabetes or menopause), hormones are given to adjust low hormone levels. To slow or stop the growth of certain cancers (such as prostate and breast cancer), synthetic hormones or other drugs may be given to block the body's natural hormones. Sometimes surgery is needed to remove the gland that makes hormones. Also called hormone therapy, hormonal therapy, or hormone treatment.
endoscopy - The use of a thin, lighted tube (called an endoscope) to examine the inside of the body.
endpoint - In clinical trials, an event or outcome that can be measured objectively to determine whether the intervention being studied is beneficial. The endpoints of a clinical trial are usually included in the study objectives. Some examples of endpoints are survival, improvements in quality of life, relief of symptoms, and disappearance of the tumor.
enteritis - Inflammation of the intestines, applied chiefly to inflammation of the small intestines.
ependymoma - A type of brain tumor that may arise in the ventricles of the brain or in the spinal cord. Also called an ependymal tumor.
Epidemiology - The scientific study of frequency and distribution of disease amongst a population, including factors controlling the presence or absence of a disease.
epistaxis - Nosebleed.
Epstein-Barr virus - EBV. A common virus that remains dormant in most people. It has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
ER - Estrogen receptor. Protein found on some cancer cells to which estrogen will attach.
ER- - Estrogen receptor negative. Breast cancer cells that do not have a protein (receptor molecule) to which estrogen will attach. Breast cancer cells that are ER- do not need the hormone estrogen to grow and usually do not respond to hormone (antiestrogen) therapy that blocks these receptor sites.
ER+ - Estrogen receptor positive. Breast cancer cells that have a protein (receptor molecule) to which estrogen will attach. Breast cancer cells that are ER+ need the hormone estrogen to grow and will usually respond to hormone (antiestrogen) therapy that blocks these receptor sites.
ErbB1 - Epidermal growth factor receptor. The protein found on the surface of some cells and to which epidermal growth factor binds, causing the cells to divide. It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor. Also known as EGFR or HER1.
erythema - Redness of the skin.
erythrocyte - A cell that carries oxygen to all parts of the body. Also called a red blood cell (RBC).
erythrocyte sedimentation rate - ESR. The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation rate is increased in inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called sedimentation rate.
esophagitis - Inflammation of the esophagus.
estrogen receptor - ER. Protein found on some cancer cells to which estrogen will attach.
estrogen receptor negative - ER-. Breast cancer cells that do not have a protein (receptor molecule) to which estrogen will attach. Breast cancer cells that are ER- do not need the hormone estrogen to grow and usually do not respond to hormone (antiestrogen) therapy that blocks these receptor sites.
estrogen receptor positive - ER+. Breast cancer cells that have a protein (receptor molecule) to which estrogen will attach. Breast cancer cells that are ER+ need the hormone estrogen to grow and will usually respond to hormone (antiestrogen) therapy that blocks these receptor sites.
estrogen receptor test - A lab test to determine if breast cancer cells have estrogen receptors. If the cells have estrogen receptors, they may depend on estrogen for growth. This information may influence how the breast cancer is treated.
estrogen replacement therapy - ERT. Hormones (estrogen, progesterone, or both) given to postmenopausal women or to women who have had their ovaries surgically removed. Hormones are given to replace the estrogen no longer produced by the ovaries.
etiology - The cause or origin of disease.
evaluable disease - Disease that cannot be measured directly by the size of the tumor but can be evaluated by other methods specific to a particular clinical trial.
evaluable patients - Patients whose response to a treatment can be measured because enough information has been collected.
Ewing's sarcoma - A type of bone cancer that usually forms in the middle (shaft) of large bones. Also called Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).
extensive-stage small cell lung cancer - Cancer has spread outside of the lung in which it began or to other parts of the body.
external radiation - Radiation therapy that uses a machine to aim high-energy rays at the cancer. Also called external-beam radiation.
external-beam radiation - Radiation therapy that uses a machine to aim high-energy rays at the cancer. Also called external radiation.
extravasation - A discharge or escape, as of blood, from a vessel into the tissues.
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