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Home > Mesothelioma cancer > Mesothelioma cancer terms list > Mesothelioma cancer glossary - N

Mesothelioma cancer glossary - N

natural killer cell - NK cell. A type of white blood cell that contains granules with enzymes that can kill tumor cells or microbial cells. Also called a large granular lymphocyte.

necrosis - Refers to the death of living tissues.

needle biopsy - The removal of tissue or fluid with a needle for examination under a microscope. Also called fine-needle aspiration.

neoadjuvant therapy - Treatment given before the primary treatment. Examples of neoadjuvant therapy include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy.

neoplasia - Abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth.

neoplasm - An abnormal mass of tissue that results from excessive cell division. Neoplasms may be benign (not cancerous), or malignant (cancerous). Also called tumor.

neoplastic meningitis - A condition in which cancer cells spread into the meninges (membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord).

nephrectomy - Surgery to remove a kidney or part of a kidney. In a partial nephrectomy, part of one kidney or a tumor is removed, but not an entire kidney. In a simple nephrectomy, one kidney is removed. In a radical nephrectomy, an entire kidney, nearby adrenal gland and lymph nodes, and other surrounding tissue are removed. In a bilateral nephrectomy, both kidneys are removed.

nephrotoxicity - Being toxic or destructive to kidney cells.

neuroblastoma - Cancer that arises in immature nerve cells and affects mostly infants and children.

neurocognitive - Having to do with the ability to think and reason. This includes the ability to concentrate, remember things, process information, learn, speak, and understand.

neuroectodermal tumor - A tumor of the central or peripheral nervous system.

neuropathy - A problem in peripheral nerve function (any part of the nervous system except the brain and spinal cord) that causes pain, numbness, tingling, swelling, and muscle weakness in various parts of the body. Neuropathies may be caused by physical injury, infection, toxic substances, disease (e.g., cancer, diabetes, kidney failure, or malnutrition), or drugs such as anticancer drugs. Also called peripheral neuropathy.

neurotoxicity - The tendency of some treatments to cause damage to the nervous system.

neutropenia - An abnormal decrease in the number of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell.

neutrophil - A type of white blood cell.

node-negative - Cancer that has not spread to the lymph nodes.

node-positive - Cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes.

non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - A group of cancers of the lymphoid system, including B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, diffuse cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, immunoblastic large cell lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, small non-cleaved cell lymphoma, and T-cell lymphoma.

noni - Morinda citrifolia. A tropical shrub. An extract from the fruit is being studied as a treatment for cancer, and extracts from the fruit, leaves, or roots have been used in some cultures to treat other diseases.

nonrandomized clinical trial - A clinical trial in which the participants are not assigned by chance to different treatment groups. Participants may choose which group they want to be in, or they may be assigned to the groups by the researchers.

non-small cell lung cancer - A group of lung cancers that includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.

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